History of direct fuel injection

    Since the establishment of the first internal combustion engines, engineers and inventors have tried to improve the design and increase the engine parameters such as power, fuel consumption. At the beginning there were simple systems carburettor, which over time became more complex. The next breakthrough was the use of indirect injection, first mechanical electronic later. So far, the most advanced type of power gasoline engine is direct injection. But maybe a little history of how this came about.

The first use of direct injection gasoline engine was invented by Hesselmana Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman in 1925. Engine Hesselmana using lean fuel and wtryskiwał fuel at the end of the compression stroke, which was to be lit by a candle. After warming up the engine was switched to diesel or kerosene. Hesselman engine had low compression ratio and was designed to operate on heavy fuel oil.
    Direct gasoline injection was also used in aircraft during World War II. The German Junkersie Jumo 210, Daimler-Benz DB 601, both 1937, and the Soviet Shvetsovie ASH-82 FN, 1943, and the American Wright R-3350, 1944. The first automotive direct injection system was developed by Bosch and was developed by Goliath and Gutbrod in 1952 and installed in 1955 Mercedes-Benz 300SL. It was the first car with standard direct injection. Bosch fuel injectors in the holes provided on the cylinder wall at the spark plugs, and the plugs were transferred to the head. Later, due to the high costs began to commonly used indirect injection.

    In the early 1970 years conducted research with the support of the American Motors Corporation (AMC) to develop a direct injection (SCFI). AMC conventional internal combustion engine has been modified and used redesigned head. The system was controlled mechanically and was connected with a lot of technical problems.

    At the end of 1970, Ford Motor Company developed a stratified direct injection system, the engine was called "ProCo" and used a unique high-pressure pump and direct injectors. At least one hundred and fifteen V8 Crown Victoria cars were built by Ford in Atlanta in Hapeville. The project was suspended due to technical reasons as electronic control systems were still very primitive, and the costs of pumps and injectors is very high. There were also problems with the emissions of nitrogen oxides in excess of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Three-way catalyst used later turned out to be too costly solution.

In 1996 appeared the first electronic gasoline direct injection. The system developed by Mitsubishi was the first application of GDI engine
in the Mitsubishi Galant / Legnum 4G93 1.8 L, which was then brought to Europe in 1997, the Mitsubishi Carisma. In Europe, due to stringent standards there is a problem of emissions, and fuel consumption was higher than expected. In 1997, he appeared in the first six-cylinder GDI 6G74 3.5 L V6. Mitsubishi applied this technology widely and has already produced more than one million GDI engines.

In 1997, he appeared Nissan Leopard VQ30DD with direct injection.

In 1998, Toyota developed its D4 direct injection system, and he appeared in a variety of vehicles on the Japanese market in the SZ and NZ engines. Toyota later introduced its D4 system to European markets 1AZ-FSE engine in the 2001 model Avensis. In the U.S. market in 2005
appeared Lexus GS 300 with engine 3GR-FSE. The engine 2GR-FSE V6 Toyota uses a more advanced direct injection system that combines both direct and indirect injection using two injectors per cylinder, the traditional intermediate fuel injector (low pressure) and direct fuel injection (high pressure) in the known D4 system.

In 1999, Renault introduced the 2.0 IDE (Injection Direct Essence), the Megane model. Instead, lean Renault used the high proportion of recirculated exhaust gas to improve efficiency at low engine loads, a direct injection fuel mixture allowed to concentrate around the spark. GDI technology was sold by Mitsubishi companies PSA Peugeot Citroën, Hyundai and Volvo.

    In 2000, the Volkswagen Group presented its own gasoline engine with direct injection in the Volkswagen Lupo 1.4 L (FSI). The technology has been adapted from a prototype racing Audi R8 Le Mans. Volkswagen Group uses direct injection in its 2.0-liter FSI turbocharged and naturally aspirated. Later units were introduced 2.0 L in 2003 to the Audi A4. PSA Peugeot Citroën introduced its first GDI (HPi) engine in 2000, Citroen C5 and Peugeot 406. It was a 2.0-liter, 16-valve EW10 D with 140 hp (104 kW), the system is manufactured under license from Mitsubishi.

In 2002, he appeared in Alfa Romeo 156, direct-injection engine, the JTS (Jet Thrust Stechiometry), this technology is now used in almost every Alfa Romeo engine.

    In 2003, a new 1.8 L Duratec SCi naturally aspirated engine with direct fuel injection for the Ford Mondeo.

In 2003, BMW introduced a system of direct injection nieskiego pressure in the engine N73 V12. In 2006 he introduced the second
generation of High Precision Injection (HPI) in the new turbocharged N54, which used high-pressure injectors. PSA works with BMW engines in the new line, which debuted in 2007, the MINI Cooper S. Honda released their own direct injection system sold in Japan where the injector is positioned directly on top of the cylinder at right angles, and not slanted.

    In 2004, General Motors has released three engines with direct fuel injection:, 155 hp (116 kW) version of the 2.2 L Ecotec used in Opelach / Vauxhall Vectra and Signum in 2005, 2.0 L turbocharged Ecotec in the new Opel GT. In 2004, Isuzu produced the first GDI engine. Renult Company withdraws from the IDE engines, the official reason is the difficulty in meeting quality standards, in particular NOx gases, and unofficially because of problems with the failure rate units.

    In 2005, Mazda introduced its own version of direct injection in MAZDASPEED6 and later on the CX-7. It is known as Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI).

In 2006, BMW released a new version of the N54 twin turbo engine for its 335i Coupe, 335i Sedan and later, a series of 535i and 135i models. Mercedes-Benz has developed a direct injection CLS 350 CGI CGI piezo injectors used directly. CLS 350 CGI offers 292 BHP

    In 2007, Ford introduced its new Ford EcoBoost engine technology for a variety of global vehicles (from small to large trucks). The engine first appeared in 2007 in the Concept Lincoln MKR called TwinForce

    In 2008, the BMW X6 xDrive50i released the direct-injection engine with Twin Turbo V8 N63.

In 2009, the Ferrari California began selling model with direct injection and has announced that its new 458 Italia model is also e
quipped with a direct injection system. Porsche have also started selling 997 and Cayman equipped with direct injection. Produced the next-generation Ford Taurus SHO and Flex with a 3.5 L twin-turbo EcoBoost V-6 with direct injection. Holden also said two engines with direct injection V6 Commodores for variant known as Sidi or Direct Injection Spark Ignition.

    In 2010, Infiniti will produce engine M56 with direct injection. Motus Motorcycles develops KMV4 catechist engine with direct injection into the MST motorcycles. Hyundai Sonata 2011 model introduces a GDI engine, including the 2.0-liter turbocharged power of 274 HP.

    By 2014, all Mazda engines will be based on direct injection Skyactiv, which means that all new cars Mazda will be equipped with GDI after 2014.

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